The aim of this work is to show how art media can help in engineering and scientific education. The philosophy of this work is establishing of interrelationships between art, science and technology in order to show the young generation of engineers, scientists and educators how learning, education and our very existence may be interesting, fascinating, creative, productive, efficient, exciting, attractive, rich, and as a result beautiful.
The examples of use of different arts (painting, sculpture, literature, poetry, and music) in curricula of materials science, thermodynamics, and corrosion of metals are shown. Analogies, interrelations, mutual influence, metaphors, humour, common aspects and differences between art and engineering/scientific disciplines are used in engineering and scientific education for students, young engineers and scientists, and educators.
There is mutual influence of art, science, technology, and engineering. First, how inventions in science and technology influence art is exemplified by the creative work of Salvador Dali who had special interests in materials science, nuclear physics, optics, biology, psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud and new technologies. The painting “The Persistence of Memory” with soft watches can stand as an illustration of Dali’s theory of “hardness” and “softness” (Figure 1). The invention of holography by Dennis Gabor is found in a stereoscopic painting by Dali. Another example is the picture “The Three Sphinxes of Bikini” of Dali which was painted after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 (Figure 2). As a result, “nuclear” and “atomic” painting in the creative work of Dali occupied nearly 35 years. Another example concerns the painting “The Starry Night” by Vincent Van Gogh (Figure 3a). It was suggested that this painting which appeared to show a spiral nebula with an accompanying swirl was inspired by the sketch of the Whirlpool Galaxy M51 made by the astronomer Lord Rosse (Figure 3b). “The rayonism” (лучизм) was developed by the painter Mikhail Larionov as a reflection of the first discoveries in nuclear physics in the 1910s (Figure 4). Many works of Marcel Duchamp were inspired by non-Euclidean geometry, concept of the 4th dimensional space, X-rays (radiation) and electromagnetism. His painting “The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes” (1912) was enthused by the invisible world of electrons (Figure 5). His works bring together left-brain science and with right-brain visualizations. The French composer Maurice Ravel created “Bolero” after the visiting a metallurgical plant. When you listen to the “Bolero”, you may imagine metallurgical processes with flowing hot liquid metal, blows and strokes of metallic components, rolling-mills, etc.
Here is an opposite example: how art influences science? The Steady State model of the universe as an alternative to the Big Bang model of three British physicists Hoyle, Bondi and Gold was stimulated by the circular plot of the film “Dead of Night”.
We can conclude from this example that we should teach any child, young man, pupil, student, engineer, scientist, artist and educator to grasp and perceive art, as we teach reading, writing and calculating.
Art can help in understanding and remembering of different processes and phenomena studying by scientific and engineering disciplines. Corrosion phenomena are compared with pictures and statues of famous artists and sculptors. General corrosion was compared with the “Tall Figure” by Alberto Giacometti (Figure 6); pitting corrosion - with the “Pit” by Philip Guston (Figure 7); three periods of car’s life (new car, beginning of corrosion, and destruction) - with the “The Garden of Earthly Delights” by Hieronymus Bosch (Figure 8); and erosion – with the “Unique Forms of Continuity in Space” by Umberto Boccioni (Figure 9). Examples of descriptions of behavior of materials were given in literature by writers Lyman Frank Baum (“The Wonderful Wizard of Oz”), Alexander Volkov (“The Wizard of the Emerald City”), Brothers Grimm (“The frog king or Iron Henry”), and Hans Christian Andersen (“The Steadfast Tin Soldier”).

Figure 1. “The Persistence of Memory” (soft watches) by Salvador Dali, 1931.

Figure 2. “The Three Sphinxes of Bikini” by Salvador Dali, 1947.

Figure 3. a - “The Starry Night” by Vincent Van Gogh, 1889; b - The sketch of the Whirlpool Galaxy M51 by the astronomer Lord Rosse, 1845.

Figure 4. “Red rayonism” by Mikhail Larionov, 1913.

Figure 5. “The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes” by Marcel Duchamp, 1912.

Figure 6. “Tall Figure” by Alberto Giacometti (1949) as general corrosion.

Figure 7. “Pit” by Philip Guston (1976). Pitting corrosion – severe local corrosion.

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Figure 8. “The Garden of Earthly Delights” by Hieronymus Bosch (1510-1515) and three periods of car`s life: new car, beginning of corrosion, and destruction.

Figure 9. “Unique Forms of Continuity in Space” by Umberto Boccioni (1913) or “Erosion”. a, c – Erosion inside brass tube; b – The sculpture of Umberto Boccioni.

Poetry is one of the most philosophical branches of art. Let me give two examples of use of poetry in scientific and engineering education. When you teach entropy you can talk about Wystan Hugh Auden who has been admired by physical laws and wrote brilliant poem “Entropy” which is well studied by students and perceived with great pleasure. The Canadian engineer Tom Watson created luminous poem “Rust’s a Must”.
Historical aspects may be beautiful and enjoyable in learning scientific and engineering discoveries. In exact sciences there are quantitative measures of estimation of each value: mass, length, force, energy. In humanistic disciplines (history, philosophy, psychology) as well as in art there are no quantitative criteria. This is similar to question how to measure beauty, love, friendship, democracy? If there is no quantitative estimation of some category or phenomenon, any definition becomes undefined, ambiguous and abstract. We know that in chemistry there is the function named Gibbs energy which defines the “love” between substances. Why there is no such function for estimation of love between people? Thus people tried to estimate this and human chemistry appeared. Human chemistry is the study of bond-forming and bond-breaking reactions between people and the structures they form. Today human chemistry is similar to alchemy in the Middle Ages, it borders with art, but further investigation on the molecular level in human brains will help to discover what happens in our organisms, and intimacy will end.
Music has always been among the leading arts, and therefore has been used for different studies. Children learn the alphabet “ABC” to the tune of “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”, and the states of the USA in the alphabetical order from a song “Fifty Nifty United States”; students learn some chemical reactions to the tune of “Oh, my darling Clementine”. We use mostly visual and hearing perception in education. Thus, we can connect music, word and picture or writing and use them in education. Here are some examples.
a. Thermodynamic reversible processes (a quasi-static process that happens infinitely slowly) can be associated with the eternal motion, namely, with the “Flight of the Bumblebee” by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. When we are listening to this music composition we feel that this music is eternal as well as there is no end both for it and for any thermodynamic reversible process.
b. The 2nd law of thermodynamics (the entropy of the universe tends to a maximum) is associated with the “Bolero” by Moris Ravel or “In the Hall of the Mountain King” (the suite “Peer Gynt”) by Edvard Grieg or “Polovetzkian dances” (the opera “Prince Igor”) by Alexander Borodin. The analogy is in the “expansion” of music during its development. The same occurs with the universe.
Certainly such music examples can connect beauty of scientific and engineering disciplines with the harmony – disharmony of our world, namely, better understanding and remembering of scientific and engineering disciplines.
Humor is very fine and clever art in the area of human creativity (art, science and engineering being the varieties). Humor occurs when the brain recognizes the pattern that surprises it. Humor in education can help take away the tension, tiredness, “sleepness”, even misunderstanding, and relax. Anecdotes, jokes, jests, and quotes of famous scientists, engineers and artists may also help in understanding and accepting of the complexity and beauty of scientific and engineering disciplines. Here are several examples.
a. What is the difference between thermodynamics and stick? Stick has two ends and no one beginning. Thermodynamics has two “beginnings” (the 1st and the 2nd laws) and no one end.
b. When we use several times the name of some scientist, for example, Gibbs phase rule, Gibbs function or Gibbs energy, Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, chemical potential suggested by Gibbs, we may tell about the movie “The Angel’s Ash”. A pupil of twelve years old in small town in Ireland was asked to write a composition about Jesus. That was in 1930s. The weather was rainy all time (Ireland’s weather!), there was no job for parents, no good flat, no enough food, and many little children died in Ireland. A little pupil of 12 wrote in the composition: “Jesus lived in the South in warm country (Israel) with much sun, there were no rains, and he had not to wear shoes. If he wanted to eat he went to fig or pomegranate trees and ate much fruit. If Jesus was born and lived in Ireland, he was ill and has died in the little age, and I had not to write this composition”. This is the place to joke that “because of Gibbs we should learn more and more thermodynamics”.
c. The British cosmologist Stephen Hawking said that we get pleasure from sex and science (and engineering), but from the latter much more time … You may mention to your students that cognitive process in science and engineering is the permanent discovers, and we can enjoy every new ascertain in knowledge.

Students, young engineers/scientists who received explanations of engineering and scientific disciplines in comparison with humanistic aspects showed more creativity and satisfaction in their job and life.
Humanistic aspects should be more and more included in engineering and scientific education, namely we can talk about “beautifying” engineering and scientific learning and education. Our experience is summarized in the book “Corrosion for Everybody” published by Springer in 2010.